prof. dr. sc. Mirko Jakić:
Filozofija o znanosti

HFD, Zagreb 1989.
Recenzenti: prof. dr. Heda Festini i prof. dr. Nikola Skledar
ISBN 86-81173-21-9

sadržaj | summary



This study represents an effort to recognize the basic points in the history of philosophy which influenced the comprehension of phenomenology in Western civilization as well as determined the relationship between philosophy and science. Because of this, the most relevant works of this philosophy have been selected, those being that of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Heidegger. It is clear that this selection could have been completely different and much wider; therefore, the title of this study might look a bit presumtuous. The study gives a number of reasons which support this very choice. In this study, the ontological analysis of the above-mentioned texts is conducted methodically. Apart from mutual comparison, no attempt has been made to synthesize this material since it would have been not only impossible but also disproportionate. With the strenght of their own clarity, all of the above philosophical theories show validity in both their historical-philosophical meanings and their philosophical understanding of the world in general.

The Ancient Greek philosophy, based on Plato and Aristotle, is viewed as having only two main characteristics: the non-existence of a strict distinction subject and object, specifically, the failure to distinguish the subject object relationship in a contemporary sense. Also, this represents the beginning of projective thought concerning the isolation of a special technique for the observation and explanation of the universe. Clearly, these two characteristics cannot, alone, attempt to define the essence of the Ancient Greek philosophical viewpoint; however, they do represent two important components for the notion of science.

17th Century Philosophy determines, through the work of Rene Descartes, a new final quality in the notion of science. The importance of demarcation, the reduction to qualitatively measurable relationships, the attempt to reach objective criteria for universal truth, as well as the conclusion from the essence of matter to existence have been considered in this study within the framework of this philosophical theory.

The clash between traditional rationalism and empiricism, the attempt to resolve these two philosophies and the step toward a modern notion of science are explicated with a more complete analysis of the thought of Immanuel Kant, special attention being paid to basic relational concepts in the philosophy of science such as the power of space and time, phenomena, a priori, a posteriori, apprehension, succesion, simultaneity, movement, persistency, synthesis, analysis, apperception, imagination, transcendence, notion, category, reason, intellect, subject, object, quantity, quality, selfness, selfishness, truth and construction. This study pays special attention to Kant's successes and failures in the philosophy of geometry and his conjecture of a modern theory of truth.

As the period of classical German philosophy represents one of the most indented in relation to the notion of science, the entire qualitative and idealistic significance of this period is noted by analysis of the thought of G. W. F. Hegel. Special attention is given with the intention of recognizing the ontological basis of Hegel's identification of the object and nature, the object and notion. In other words, special attention is given to Hegel's program within which a projective mind reaches the essence of an object though only reaching one's own projection, or essence. We agree that with such an attitude, Hegel presupposes later theories concerning scientific practice as human practice - a way of liberating man from the task of survival. However, Hegel goes even further by approximating the Absolute and identifying nature as nothingness, stressing that extreme subjectivism destroys the object, Nature itself. The idealism in Hegelian thought, brought to its final conclusion, represents a withdrawal from the search for a uniqueform of the episteme since all the scientific evidence lends credence to the illusion of objective reach. For Hegel, scientific effort is an orientation towards nature as an object of exploration, and in the final evaluation, a non-entity. There are more detailed arguments which support such an interpretation of the Hegelian attitudes toward different sciences and the value of their results concerning the truth about a real and existing universe.

A critique is also given on Hegel's conception of the notion of »Absolute Science« by the analysis of the concept of the abstract work of idea in an extended period of time. This is accomplished first by the establishment of the principle of dialectical discrepancy reflexive from appearance and reaching the essence of phenomena by the abstraction of the contents; and finally by the establishment of a dialectico-speculative level of intellectual insight by seeing phenomena and sensual certainty as illusion.

The study stresses that with the Hegelian approach, an important period of philosophy ends and the future brings a modern deliberation finding its meaning in the correlation of the philosophy of science with its result, its technique.

Two of the most significant philosophies of technique are consulted: Marx's and Heidegger's philosophies.

The main orientation of Marx's philosophy of technique is stated within his chapter, »Historical Demension«, through three main themes.

  1. Marx's relationship with philosophy in general, especially Hegelian philosophy.

  2. The possible significance of certain fundamental concepts of Marx's theoretical thought on the basis of which the idea of the notion of science and technique is formed.

  3. The determinance of the »science of history« as the only natural science of mankind.

The first theme deals with the analysis of the basic attitudes of Marx's critique of the notions of nature, the science of history, pragmatics, dialectics, the process of abolition, alienation, etc.

The second theme is significant within Marx's understanding of profit, goods, private labor, private ownership, the production of demand, alienation, and freedom.

The last chapter of the study deals with some aspects of Heidegger's philosophy of technique and his influence on contemporary European philosophy. The analysis depends on the recognition of Heidegger's concept of Being (Sein), herebeing (Dasein), position, fate (Geshick), etc.

The conclusion gives a short recapitulation of the most important points and comparisons of different attitudes concerning science within given philosophical theories.

Translated by Erich Ackermann