PRIRODNO-GEOGRAFSKA OBILJEJA OTOKA RAVE U ZADARSKOM ARHIPELAGU
DAMIR MAGA UDK: 911.2.551 (497.5)
JOSIP FARIÈIÆ Izvorni znanstveni rad
Filozofski fakultet u Zadru Original scientific paper
Faculty of Philosophy Zadar,
Department of Geography
Otok Rava (3.62 km2, 120 stanovnika 1991.) nalazi se u Zadarskom arhipelagu, u junohrvatskom (dalmatinskom) otoèju. U sklopu projekta geografske obrade malih hrvatskih otoka, ovdje su obraðena obiljeja njegove prirodne osnove. Analizirani su poloaj, velièina i obuhvat, geomorfologija, geoloki sastav i graða, klimavegetacijske znaèajke, pedoloke znaèajke, vode i ivi svijet. Istaknuti su: vanost dolomitne graðe, povoljne klimatske znaèajke (padaline, temperature, vjetrovi i sl.), nestaica vode, znaèenje autohtone vegetacije. Posebna panja u radu pridaje se obiljejima mora oko otoka (fizièki, kemijski i bioloki parametri). Naseljenost i vrednovanje otoka ovisila je o prirodnogeografskim potencijalima, a i suvremene moguænosti razvoja zasnivaju se na njima. Rad daje i iscrpnu literaturu dosad objavljenih i neobjavljenih tekstova koji tretiraju ovaj otok o kome do sada u geografiji nije posebno pisano.
Kljuène rijeèi: Rava (otok), prirodno-geografska obiljeja.
The island of Rava (3,62 km2, 120 inhabitants 1991), which makes part of the Zadar archipelago, belongs to the South Croatian (Dalmatian) group of islands. In this paper, the features of its natural basis are elaborated as a part of the project connected with the geographical study of small Croatian islands. The authors anlyse its position, size and extent, geomorphology, geological composition and structure, climatovegetable properties, pedological and biogeographical features and waters. Attention has been paid to the importance of its dolomitic structure, favourable climatic conditions (precipitation, temperatures, winds, etc.), lack of water and significance of its autochthonous vegetation. Special heed has been given to the properties of the sea surrounding the island (physical, chemical and biological parametres). Inhabitability and valuation depended on its physicogeographical potential, and the contemporary possibilities are based on it too. The paper offers a detailed list of texts published up to the present and some unpublished ones, which deal with the island that has not been specially treated so far.
Key words: Rava (island), physicogeographical features
Damir Maga, Josip Farièiæ, Basic physicogeographical characteristics of the Rava Island in the Zadar archipelago
The island of Rava (3,62 km2 and 120 inhabitants, 1991) is one of those small islands situated in the Zadar archipelago, on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. From the geographical point of view it has not been much elaborated so far. The paper gives physicogeographic characteristics, which is connected with the project on small Croatias islands. The first part of the paper treats the position of the island, its size and extent. According to its area, this is the 53rd island in Croatia, and the 37th with regard to the number of inhabitants (1991). The highest point is Babiæovac (98 m). The sea cliff of Ravica appertains to it. The island makes part of the middle range of Zadar islands and, administratively, belongs to the city of Zadar. It is an autonomous cadastral commune and Roman Catholic parish. The settlement consists of two separated nuclei along SW coast: Vela Rava in the central part of the island and Mala Rava in its NW part.
Its geological structure is relatively simple. There is a predominance of nonlayered greyish lower-upper cretaceous dolomites, to 600m thickness. These are the oldest sediments in the Zadar archipelago. Their form is anticlinal. There are two smaller unexamined speleological objects in the NW part of the island. The island is well carved. The coast is 15.45 km in length. The coastline index is 2,29. There are many more coves and promontories in the central and SE parts. Larger coves are Lokvina, Viæabok, Paladinjica, Marnjica, Tanko, Valiina, Ivanoevica, Pavajsko, Pestehovac, Draice, Golubovac, Martinjica, Grbavaè and Grbaèina. Relief features show dry dolinas and torrents with well expressed slope drainage and weathering. Along the coast there is a shallow zone (1,5 m deep, called singular) large several metres, followed by deeper waters. There is a small number of flat superficies, which are used as gardens, while slopes serve for olives and less often as vineyards. The island surfaces are divided into properties by horizontal stone walls (mocira) and vertical ones (trmezal). The authors emphasize a numerous and interesting toponimy connected with the terrain geomorphology. From pedological point of view there are not remarkable soil zones. It is a question of shallow and poor reddish-brown soils originated from degraded dolomites. There is plenty of rocky soil and broken stones. There is no superficial running water on the island. There are several wells with brackish water, and potable water is found in a 40 metres deep pit on the nearby islet of Mrtovnjak. There is also a Pool in Vela Rava. Because of water deficiency, the inhabitants have built public cisterns in both settlements and the owners of new houses have their own cisterns.
The authors study in particular the sea water surrounding the island. Physical properties of the sea (depth, sea bottom, temperatures, density, transparency, colour, currents, tides, waves) are elaborated in accordance with accessible data. Chemical characteristics follow (salinity, oxygen concentration, pH factor, the quantity of silicate, phosphate and nitrate, ammoniac) and biological data (organic world: plankton, nekton, benthos). Climatic indicators connected with insolation, global radiation and cloudness are elaborated. Temperature data follow (annual t. ca 15oC; ca 23,5oC in July and ca 6,8oC in January), precipitation (ca 880 mm per annum), winds. Mediterranean climate conditions adequate vegetation. The island of Rava belongs to the climazonal association of holm oak (Quercus ilex). Mediterranean sorts are numerous. The present day high and low maquis and garigues predomine and, here and there, even larger specimens of trees grow. It is significant that cupresses can be seen on certain locations. The paper ends with elaborating the significance of physicogeographical basis for the social and economic development of the island. Consideration is given to the population since the oldest times of Mediterranean polyculture. Cultivation of olives, figs and grape vine (the latter till not long time ago) has considerable importance as well as breeding small cattle. Restrictive factors of development (lack of water and fertile soils, isolation, depopulation) are analysed too. The influence of regional centre Zadar is also important, as well as the prospects of tourist and aquaculture objects.